Friday, May 22, 2020

Cellular respiration Free Essay Example, 1250 words

A nucleoside diphosphate and a free phosphate molecule are formed from the reaction. Therefore, this reaction can proceed in either direction and can be illustrated by the following chemical equation: ADP  +  Ã¢â€žâ€"  Ã¢â€ â€Ã‚  ATP  +  H2O The process of cellular respiration allows ATP molecules to be made. Therefore, living cells can access this energy by breaking up these bonds. This same energy is made available to other cells through the transportation of ATP molecules to the cells. Sometimes it is not possible to transfer the entire ATP molecule. Therefore, the phosphate group is conveyed to another molecule, which then becomes phosphorylated, and can liberate energy by releasing the phosphate molecule. It is important to be conversant with all the steps that lead to the generation of ATP in order to comprehend the effect of rotenone on cellular respiration. The Process of Cellular Respiration The initial step in cellular respiration is glycolysis where glucose, a six-carbon molecule, is changed into two three-carbon molecules known as pyruvic acid. The initial step involves the conversion of glucose into glucose-6-phosphate, which is catalyzed by the enzyme hexokinase. Glucose-6-phosphate is then converted to fructose-6-phosphate under the influence of phosphoglucoisomerase. We will write a custom essay sample on Cellular respiration or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now The resultant fructose-6-phosphate is further phosphorylated to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. Subsequently, aldolase catalyzes the breakdown of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehydes phosphate. A series of five additional reactions lead to the formation of two molecules of phosphoenol pyruvate (PEP). Pyruvate kinase then catalyzes the transfer of the phosphate groups from PEP to ADP leading to the formation of pyruvate and two molecules of ATP in addition to two water molecules and two NADH molecules. Glycolysis does not require the availability of oxygen and takes place in the cell cytoplasm. The entire glycolytic pathway consumes two molecules of ATP and generates four ATP molecules. Therefore, the net amount of energy yielded is two molecules of ATP. The chemical equation that summarizes glycolysis is as follows: Glucose + 2NAD+ + 2Pi + 2ADP → 2Pyruvate + 2NADH + 2 ATP + 2 H+ + 2 H2O Figure 1: The glycolytic pathway (Garrett and Grisham 427). Pyruvic acid from glycolysis undergoes oxidative decarboxylation to form acetyl CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle. A molecule of carbon dioxide and NADH are also formed. The enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is responsible for this reaction, which may take place in the cytosol or the mitochondria (Garret and Grisham 428).

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Parents And Children Should Not Have Vaccinations

Some critics believe parents and children should not have vaccinations. There’s still a debate going on because the medical community does not agree. Healthcare professionals believes everyone should be vaccinated and it is very important. They believe vaccinations protect you when traveling, prevent childhood illnesses, it’s painless, and you take it once and you are protected for life (Pros and Cons, 2015). These diseases from other countries can be brought back into the United States and cause an outbreak of diseases. Other people believe vaccinations are 90%-95% effective, but there is still 5% that can still come in contact with the disease (Pros and Cons, 2015). They think it doesn’t capture the illness and immunity lasts longer if created by natural circumstances (Pros and Cons, 2015). Some schools require certain vaccinations to be taken before starting to school. Fourteen studies have been conducted by Amanda Peet, a vaccine manufacturer, and she believe s there is no association between autism and vaccines. No real studies have ever been done but medical professions believe this is fake (Peet, n.d). Whether or not a parent cannot pay for vaccinations is no problem. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) distributes vaccines to state health departments and other local agencies. These agencies distribute them to private-physicians’ offices, at no charge to those receiving vaccines (Vaccines for Children, 2014). The Childhood Immunization Support Program (CISP) hasShow MoreRelatedVaccinations Should Be Mandatory For Children1633 Words   |  7 PagesThroughout the years, there have been many serious diseases that plagued the world, a number of which have been eradicated through the widespread administration of vaccinations. In the 1950s, the number of polio cases in the United States was at 58,000, and in 1988, this disease had affected 350,000 people (11 Facts About Polio). Because polio mainly affects children under the age of five, it became very important to parents that something was done to cure and protect their children. When the polio vaccineRead MoreVaccinations And How Vaccines Protect Us All By Harrison Wein And Beliefs About Childhood Vaccinations1428 Words   |  6 Pageswhat can help one to remain healthy, vaccinations come to mind. Vaccinations, to many people, are a necessity to remain healthy. I know when I was younger I hated to get a shot, but when I think about it today I am glad my parents made me get them. My mother was a nurse, so she knew the importance of vaccinations. Unfortunately, in todays’ society some parents think vaccinations can be more harmful then helpful, therefore refusing to vaccinate their children. The articles â€Å"How Vaccines Protect UsRead MoreCompulsory Vaccinations And The Public Health Intervention Essay1324 Words   |  6 Pagescontroversy is when it comes to compulsory vaccinations, the public health intervention will always have negative or ha rmful effects in combination with the benefits of compulsory vaccinations. For those that stand behind the argument that immunizations are unnecessary in our children, have argued that the vaccine industry has misrepresented the safety of vaccines. They also have argued that they have covered up information regarding certain vaccinations to gain from the financial standard. In orderRead MoreThe First Vaccination For Smallpox Essay1324 Words   |  6 PagesThe first vaccination for smallpox was discovered in 1796 by Edward Jenner; since then there have been arguments over the morality, ethics, effectiveness, and safety of all vaccinations. A vaccination is a killed or weakened organism that is used to create immunity that protects you from a particular disease without causing the suffering from the disease itself. Immunizations have saved more than a billon lives and protected civilians in the United States from life threatening diseases. During theRead MoreA Research Study On Unoff icial Vaccination Education Essay1440 Words   |  6 Pages Unofficial Vaccination Education When parents are trying to decide whether to vaccinate their child, they generally research the risks and benefits of vaccination. Johnson and Capdevila stated that in their study, â€Å"The participants stated that they had learned about†¦ vaccinations through media coverage, the Internet, health professionals†¦ and other mothers† (2014.) The media can be seen as friend or foe because they always cover popular controversies; however, it is well known that what mass mediaRead MorePrevention And Prevention Of Immunization1113 Words   |  5 Pagesdiseases that can be deadly especially to young children and infants. The process, as explained by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), is referred to as the â€Å"4:3:1:3 series,† which represents the number of dosages of vaccines required to fend off diseases such as mealses, mumps, tetsnus, and many others (â€Å"Immunization†). In recent years there has been a movement mainly empowered by ne w mothers to forgo some or all vaccinations for their children. The following paragraphs will include anRead MoreVaccinations Should Be Mandatory For All Children1311 Words   |  6 Pageschildhood vaccinations have been making an appearance. Health officials are concerned that diseases will spread and lives will be lost. Officials all agree that vaccinations will benefit the population. Some parents feel it is an infringement on the right to keep the children healthy and safe. Vaccinations should be mandatory for all children because it will prevent diseases from spreading, protect future generations, and save children and parents time and money. Childhood vaccinations have not beenRead MoreVaccinations, Do They Protect Or Are They Harmful?904 Words   |  4 PagesTo Vaccinate, or not to Vaccinate Vaccinations, do they protect or are they harmful? This is a question that every parent ponders when it is time to inject their children with medicines. Since vaccinations first began being administered in 1800s there have been those who protest them and those who stand behind them. It is a parents choice to have their children vaccinated or to opt out of vaccinations. A vaccine or immunization is a dose administered by either injection, orally or sometimes nasallyRead MoreWhy Children Should Be Vaccinated942 Words   |  4 Pagesvaccinate, has been a question many parents in America have been asking themselves for years. Some parents believe that it is their right to decide if their children will be vaccinated; while some states believe that all children should be vaccinated. There are logical and illogical reasons for this argument. There should be a federal law that requires parents to vaccinate their children because it will lower the number of deaths, benefit those children who have lower immune systems, and it can getRead MoreShould Vaccinations Be Mandatory For Children1358 Words   |  6 PagesShould Vaccinations Be Mandatory For Children in the United States? In the United States, the law states that vaccinations are required for children entering school unless they have a valid reason that prevents them from receiving the vaccinations. Starting when children are born, they begin the regimen of vaccinations that continue throughout their adolescent years and adulthood. Each year children receive a variation of shots to protect them from the illnesses they will encounter in the world

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Doll’s House English A1 Higher Level Paper 1 Free Essays

A spectacle is an event that is memorable for the appearance it creates. The appearance in Henrik Ibsen’s play is created due to three factors: first, the idea of the play, second, the dramatic structure which imposes a clear order on human behavior and makes it understandable and predictable, and finally, the dramatic techniques used to convey the message. The idea of the play itself makes it spectacular since nothing can be more fascinating than the emergence of a new individuality and a new state of mind in front of the spectator’s eyes. We will write a custom essay sample on A Doll’s House English A1 Higher Level Paper 1 or any similar topic only for you Order Now The main character, Nora, lives in her husband’s doll house, leading the life of a doll wife.When her husband falls ill, she borrows money illegally by forging her father’s signature to save her husband’s life, and consequently finds herself in an ambiguous position. Unfortunately, she cannot comprehend the severity of her decision to commit an illegal deed as well as to lie to her husband about it. This situation leads to her epiphany about the realities of the world, ruining the doll’s house. What makes this play fascinating is that contrary to audience’s expectations, Nora musters her energy to stop acting as a disobedient child and decides to discover and educate herself in order to find her individuality.Like a phoenix rising from the ashes, she emerges as a new person from her false life in a doll’s house. What the audience remembers in â€Å"A Doll’s House† is the message of the play that was very controversial in the times of Ibsen. The message that a woman can go against societal morals and conventions in Ibsen’s times would be a very notorious topic to discuss, let alone put in a play to be performed in front of hundreds of people. The play was even banned for a long time. Another factor that makes the spectacle of the drama unforgettable is the clear dramatic structure that Ibsen imposes on the action and behavior of people in the play.The structure of the play has a clear beginning, in which Ibsen creates an idyllic world in which the characters strive. The next stage is where the playwright creates suspense by inserting an information gap: we know of Nora’s illegal act, but her husband does not, and she does everything to keep it secret. This in its turn brings about a conflict, the third stage. When Nora’s husband discovers her faux pas, he humiliates her and makes her suffer. Nora is disillusioned, she, as a disobedient child, did not expect this and is unable to comprehend the reality, she still expects her husband to forgive and help her.The final structural part of the play portrays the process of Nora coming of age, her transformation from a disobedient child and a flirting doll wife into an adult, serious person. This stage is shown by Nora’s unexpected departure from her idyllic past, which as she now understands was far from idyllic. The structure imposed on the events in the play, helps the audience organize the content and comprehend it. The last factor that may influence the audience’s perception of the play, and make it unforgettable, is the use of dramatic techniques such as subtle symbolism and visual effects.One recurring symbol throughout the play is the Christmas tree which in the beginning of the play represents the playful mood and happiness of the season. Ibsen also creates an undeniable association between the tree and Nora, who, like the tree, is simply decorative in her family: we know that Nora does not make any crucial decisions in the family. The Christmas tree can also not be â€Å"unveiled† as Nora refuses to show her dress before she performs her dance. In the end of the play, a very different mood is created by the same tree which has â€Å"burnt down candle stubs on its red branches,† as stated in the stage directions. The season of the play, Christmas, is also very symbolic because for many people the New Year symbolizes a new beginning, a chance to live their life in a better way. The title of the drama itself, â€Å"A Doll’s House† suggests a miniature model of a house inhabited by dolls. In this way Ibsen emphasizes that Nora’s home is a falsification of home and marriage. The pet names that Torvald uses on Nora, â€Å"little lark,† or â€Å"my squirrel† symbolize condescending attitude of men towards their wives in Ibsen’s times. Not less symbolic, are the three women characters in the drama. Apart from Nora, Mrs.Linde and the Nurse both have unfortunate past without men to support them, which shows how dependent women were on men. All these symbolic elements contribute to the impression of the spectator and help him remember the play more than the words said by the characters. One of the visual effects, which I cannot forget, is Nora’s tarantella dance. When I read bout the origin of this dance, which in south Italy was once used as a cure from the tarantula venom, I understood why Ibsen chose the tarantella to amplify Nora’s uneasiness in her ambiguous position, performing to the frantic tempo of the tarantella for her master puppeteer, her husband.By and large, Ibsen’s play produces a strong impression on the spectator, not only because of dialogues and monologues, but mostly by the controversial idea of female independence unthinkable in 1879, by the dramatic structure of Ibsen’s drama which organized the behavior and actions of the characters, and of course, by the subtle use of visual effects and symbols, all amounting to far more than the words spoken. How to cite A Doll’s House English A1 Higher Level Paper 1, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

Physical Fitness Essays (557 words) - Nutrition, Nutrient

Physical Fitness Physical fitness is being healthy. To be healthy you must exercise, eat right and sleep good. When somebody is physically fit they fell better about themselves and they feel better physically. To become fit a person must work hard and eat right. They must eat healthy foods and workout or exercise regularly. One of the first steps to fitness is a healthy diet. There are six basic nutrients your body must have to stay healthy. Vitamins, minerals, fats, proteins, carbohydrates and water. Your body must have these nutrients to maintain healthy. Vitamins are essential and vital to good healthy. Vitamins A is a fat soluble vitamin which means it needs fats or oils for your body to absorb it. It is needed for healthy bones, skin and hair. Vitamin D is known as the "sunshine vitamin". It keeps your teeth and bones strong by increasing the absorption of calcium and phosphorus. It is acquired from diary products and the sun. Other vitamins include: vitamin E, vitamin B1, vitamin B2; just to name a few. Minerals are inorganic substances that your body cannot make and are necessary to life. They are important for protecting our cells and helping to keep our bones, teeth and skin healthy. They also play a role in blood pressure, heart regulation and muscle regulation. Calcium is a vital mineral because 99% of all the calcium in our bodies is found in our bones. Iron is also a essential mineral. It aids in the production of hemoglobin, myoglobin some enzymes. Magnesium, copper, phosphorus and potassium are all examples of minerals. Proteins can be found in many foods but are more abundant in meat, fish, eggs, milk and diary products. Proteins are needed in the building of and restoration of body tissues. Proteins are not normally stored or accumulated like carbohydrates or fats. That means that they must be consumed periodically, according to a person's sports or daily activities and to a person's muscle mass. Carbohydrates supply energy to the body. Carbs can be divided into two groups: simple carbs, complex carbs. The main difference between the two is the rate of absorption into the body. Simple carbohydrates like common sugar (all sweets, and junk food) provide immediate energy, but only for a short time. Complex carbohydrates (cereals and whole grain bread) are an excellent source of energy. They serve as long-term energy. They do not potentate weight gain like the simple carbs. Fats are divided into animal (saturated) fats, and vegetable (unsaturated) fats. They provide the body with energy too. They keep the body functioning properly. Fats can be stored, but when consumed in large amounts they can lead to weight gain. Exercising is essential to maintaining fitness. It burns off extra fat and increases stamina and cardiovascular health. Exercising is different for everyone. Not everybody can run as fast or lift as much as somebody else. When exercising you should start small, and work your way up. You can weight train, run, and participate in sports. Steroids are used for personal and medical reasons. Some people take the easy way out and will use steroids when they lift for quicker results. Anabolic steroids are made from testosterone a male hormone. It will increase muscle mass but it could have permanent effects on the user. Girls who take anabolic steroids will grow facial hair, have their voice deepened, and they will become more manlike. Boys will experience testicular shrinking, impotence, and possibly prostate cancer. Both male and females could end up with liver and kidney problems, skin problems, and coronary artery problems.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

The Desert Biome essays

The Desert Biome essays The desert is a biome or as a life zone, for example another biome would be tundra. The desert in western United States in caused by the coastal ranges and the gigantic Sierras in California. These mountains cause the clouds to rain and by the time they reach the other side, there is little or no moisture left in them. That is why deserts are so cold. The desert is a very amazing place. In a place that most people would believe to inhospitable, life blossoms. Each animal and plant has adapted to survive in the hot desert. For example: The roadrunner, which is in the cuckoo family, is a consumer of the desert; it runs instead of flying, it is an omnivore, with reptiles and insects forming much of its diet. The Saguaro cactus, a producer, is the king of cactuses. It can reach a height of about 40 feet. It is home to many animals from an owl to bobcats perch while in danger. These cactus are build for the desert because of their tough skin and their advanced system for storing water. A desert tortoise, a consumer, eats plants and converts them to water and food. This is a good feature for a desert living creature. The tortoise during mating season fights with another male. The first to go upside down, loses and could even die if he does not turn right side up. The bullies of the desert are the pigs, or to be exact, the peccary and javelin. These pigs have a mean attitude and a ruthless set of teeth. They will practically eat anything. Even insects and spiders live in the desert. The tarantula that lives in the desert lives in a hole on the ground, an food that comes by it attacks and kills it with its venomous bite. The millipedes from your backyard live in the desert too. These insects have over 1000 legs and they produce an odor that hampers any tarantulas attempt to eat it. The kangaroo rat is an amazing little mammal. They are consumers and during the time, the plants are nice, they stuff their...

Monday, March 2, 2020

Importance of the US Presidential Primaries

Importance of the US Presidential Primaries The U.S. presidential primaries and caucuses are held in the various states, the District of Columbia, and territories of the United States as a key part of the process of nominating candidates for election to the office of President of the United States. The U.S. presidential primary elections typically start in February and do not end until June. How many times do we have to vote for a new President of the United States, anyway? Why cant we just go to the polls once in November and be done with it? Whats so important about the primaries? Presidential Primary History The U.S. Constitution doesn’t even mention political parties. Nor does it provide a method for choosing presidential candidates. It was not that the Founding Fathers did not anticipate political parties as they had known them in England would come along; they simply were not keen to seemingly sanction party politics and its many inherent ills by recognizing it in the nation’s Constitution. In fact, for the first confirmed official presidential primary was not held until 1920  in New Hampshire. Until then, presidential candidates were nominated solely by elite and influential party officials without any input from the American people. By the late 1800s, however, social activists of the Progressive Era began to object to the lack of transparency and public involvement in the political process. Thus, today’s system of state primary elections evolved as a way to give the people more power in the presidential nomination process. Today, some states hold only primaries, some hold only caucuses and others hold a combination of both. In some states, the primaries and caucuses are held separately be each party, while other states hold â€Å"open† primaries or caucuses in which members of all parties are allowed to participate. The primaries and caucuses start in late-January or early-February and are staggered state-by-state to end by mid-June before the general election in November. The state primaries or caucuses are not direct elections. Rather than choosing a specific person to run for president, they determine the number of delegates each partys national convention will receive from their respective state. These delegates then actually select their party’s the presidential nominee at the party’s national nominating convention. Especially after the 2016 presidential election, when Democratic Party candidate Hillary Clinton won the nomination over popular challenger Sen. Bernie Sanders, many rank-and-file Democrats argued that the party’s often-controversial â€Å"superdelegate† system circumvented, at least to an extent, the intent of the primary election process. Whether the Democratic Party leaders will decide to retain the superdelegate system or not remains to be seen. Now, on to why the presidential primaries are important. Get to Know the Candidates First, primary election campaigns are the main way voters get to know about all the candidates. After the national conventions, voters hear mainly about the platforms of exactly two candidates one Republican and one Democrat. During the primaries, however, voters get to hear from several Republican and Democratic candidates, plus the candidates of third parties. As media coverage focuses on the voters of each state during primary season, all the candidates are more likely to get some coverage. The primaries provide a nationwide stage for the free and open exchange of all ideas and opinions the foundation of the American form of participatory democracy. Platform Building Secondly, the primaries play a key role in shaping the final platforms of the major candidates in the November election. Lets say a weaker candidate drops out of the race during the final weeks of the primaries. If that candidate succeeded in winning a substantial number of votes during the primaries, there is a very good chance that some aspects of his or her platform will be adopted by the partys chosen presidential candidate. Public Participation Finally, and perhaps most importantly, the primary elections provide yet another avenue through which Americans can to take part in the process of choosing our own leaders.  The interest generated by the presidential primaries moves many first-time voters to register and go to the polls. Indeed, in the 2016 presidential election cycle, more than 57.6 million people, or 28.5% of all estimated eligible voters, voted in the Republican and Democratic presidential primaries – just slightly less than the all-time record of 19.5% set in 2008 – according to a report by the Pew Research Center. While some states have dropped their presidential primary elections due to cost or other factors, the primaries continue to be a vital and important part of Americas democratic process. Why the First Primary is Held in New Hampshire The first primary is held in New Hampshire during early February of election years. Taking pride in the notoriety and economic benefit of being the home of â€Å"First-In-The-Nation† presidential primary, New Hampshire has gone to great lengths to ensure it maintains its claim to the title. A state law enacted in 1920 requires that New Hampshire hold its primary â€Å"on the Tuesday at least seven days immediately preceding the date on which any other state shall hold a similar election.† While the Iowa caucuses are held before the New Hampshire primary, they are not considered a â€Å"similar election† and rarely draw the same level of media attention.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Business Process Management Reflective Analysis Essay

Business Process Management Reflective Analysis - Essay Example According to Chandler’s opinion, strategy refers to â€Å"the determination of the basic, long-term goals and objectives of an enterprise and the adoption of courses of action and the allocation of resources necessary for those goals† (Mazzucato, 2002). Michael Porter, on the other hand has defined strategy as the â€Å"broad formula for how a business is going to compete, what its goals should be and what policies will be needed to carry out these goals† (Harmon, 2007). It is quite clear that there are three different phases that form the strategy. In the first phase management identifies what the company is doing now. In other words, they identify the existing strategies of the company. In the next phase it is important to understand about the environment in which the company operates in and in the final phase management has to decide about the next actions that are required to be taken. These decisions are taken by comparing the environmental situation with th e company’s existing strategies (Harmon, 2007). The concept regarding value chain is made popular by the famous management expert Michael Porter. Now it is considered as one of the most crucial sources of sustainable competitive advantage for the business organizations. The basic idea of value chain is referred to the processes that convert the raw materials into the finished products that are saleable as well as consumable. It engages the main activities of a company and these activities are organized in such a way that each of them adds ‘value’ to the entire business operation. In simple words value chain is the combination of the supply chain and distribution chain (Orcullo, 2007). Michael Porter has developed a specific model on value chain. In this model there are five primary activities that are directly responsible for value creation. In order to support these five activities, there are four secondary activities that indirectly create values. Primary activ ities are ‘inbound logistics’ that involve activities regarding receiving and storing of raw materials, ‘operations’ that involve activities related to processing of raw materials, ‘outbound logistics’ which involve collection and distribution of final products, ‘marketing and sales’ that are nothing but the activities associated with promotion, advertising, sales, channel selection etc. and finally ‘services’ that involve actions regarding the ‘after sales services’ that are given to satisfy the consumers (Van Weele, 2009). While researching, I have discovered the importance of value chain in the modern management. I have found that the concept is applicable in all types of organizations, be it a service provider or be it a product manufacturer. I have found several books and online articles that describe the basic idea of ‘value chain’. I have also found that Michael Porter has developed a v ery useful model that describes the usual value chain of an organization irrespective of the nature of business that it does. Enterprise Architecture and Business Strategy In the present competitive business scenario an integrated approach to both IT and business is indispensible for achieving desired level of success. With the expansion of business operations, today’s organizations are getting more and more complex. In order to manage extreme complexity inside of an organization